Grippotyphosa Duyster 1952
The serovar Grippotyphosa has been separated into two types, Moskva and Duyster (Hartskeerl et al., 2004, TSC 2008), because of various phenotypical differences (Wolff and Bohlander, 1952, Steinen et al., 1992, Hartskeerl et al., 2004).
It should be noted that according to the current criteria that define a separate serovar (TSC 1987), the serovars Grippotyphosa, Ratnapura, Valbuzzi and Muelleri actually consist of a single serovar (Hartskeerl et al., 2004).
Of note, the denotation of strain Duster as L. kirschneri, serovar Valbuzzi by Brenner et al., (1999) should be considered as an error.
* Wolff, J. W., Bohlander H.: A survey of the epidemiology and serology and an investigation on the possible occurrence in bovines in The Netherlands. Doc. Med. Geograph. Trop. IV, 1952, 257-265.
* Steinen, A. C. M., J. L. Schuurman, C. Gravekamp, H. Korver, W. J. Terpstra. Muskrats as carriers of pathogenic leptospires in The Netherlands. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 61, 1992, 43-50.
* Hartskeerl RA, Goris MGA, Brem S, Meyer P, Kopp H, Gerhards H, Wollanke B. Classification of Leptospira from the eyes of horses suffering from recurrent uveitis. J Vet Med; Series B 51, 2004, 110-115.
* TSC. International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes; Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Leptospiraceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 58, 2008, 1049-1050.
* TSC. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Leptospira: Minutes of the Meeting, 5 and 6 September 1986, Manchester, UK. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37, 1987, 472-473.
* Brenner, D. J., A. F. Kaufmann, K. R. Sulzer, A. G. Steigerwalt, F. C. Rogers, and R. S. Weyant. Further determination of DNA relatedness between serogroups and serovars in the family Leptospiraceae with a proposal for Leptospira alexanderi sp. nov. and four new Leptospira genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 1999, 839-858.